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Cardinal Symptoms in the Gastroenterology: Emesis (Nausea and Vomiting) | Definition, Meaning, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Definition

    Emesis is the involuntary emptying of stomach content due to contraction of stomach and diaphragm muscles

    Nausea_Vomiting
    Source: alighahary.ca

    Causes

    There are too many causes of emesis:

    Inflammatory causes: 

    • Gastritis, gastroenteritis, esophagitis
    • Pancreatitis
    • Hepatitis
    • Appendicitis, cholecystitis
    • Peritonitis
    • Pneumonia, etc. …

    Pain:

    • Heart infarction
    • Gall colic
    • Renal colic
    • Cephalgia (migraine, cluster cephalgia, etc..

    Mechanical disease:

    • Ileus
    • Stomach outlet stenosis
    • Esophageal stenosis etc …

    Metabolic:

    • Ketoacidosis
    • Uremia

    Medications:

    • Excess alcohol
    • Cytostatic medications
    • Opiate

    Central nervous system:

    • Intracranial pressure (tumors, bleeding)
    • Meningitis
    • Glaucoma

    Bleeding: 
    from stomach or esophagus

    Otogenic:

    • Vestibular Neuritis
    • Meniere disease

    Pregnancy

    Diagnosis

    1. Anamneses
    2. Laboratory:

    • CBC, Creatinine, Natrium, potassium, urea, glucose, BGA etc ..

    3. Gastroscopy
    4. Head- CT
    5. ENT consultation
    6. ßHCG

    Treatment


    • Therapy of the cause disease
    • Antiemetics:
    • Metoclopramide (Dopamine antagonist)
    • Atosil (neuroleptic)
    • Dimenhydrinate (antihistamine)
    • Granisetron (Serotonin antagonist)
    • Dexamethasone
    • Scopolamine (Anticholinergic)

    Source: Duale Reihe: innere Medicine: 3 Auflage 

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