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Antibiotics Classification: comprehensive List of Common Antibiotics, Mechanism & Types

antibiotics
Source: https://www.scmp.com/


    I. Broad Classification 

    A. Chemical classification 
    • B-lactam antibiotics: B-lactamase inhibitors-Clavulanic acid, Penicillins, Sulbactam, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, Monobactams.
    • Nicotinic acid derivatives: Pyrazinamide, Isoniazid, Ethionamide 
    • Quinolones: Gatifloxacin Nalidixic acid, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, etc 
    • Sulfonamides and related drugs: Paraaminosalicylic acid (PAS), Sulfones-Dapsone (DDS), Sulfadiazine and others. 
    • Tetracyclines: Doxycycline, Oxytetracycline, etc. 
    • Nitrobenzene derivative: Chloramphenicol 
    • Nitroimidazoles: Metronidazole, Tinidazole, and others 
    • Macrolide antibiotics: Azithromycin, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin 
    • Lincosamide antibiotics: Clindamycin, Lincomycin
    • Glycopeptides: Teicoplanin, Vancomycin 
    • Aminoglycosides: Gentamicin, Streptomycin, Neomycin, Amikacin, etc. 
    • Polypeptide antibiotics: Colistin, Polymyxin-B, Tyrothricin, Bacitracin 
    • Nitrofuran derivatives:  Furazolidone, Nitrofurantoin
    • Oxazolidinone: Linezolid 
    • Diaminopyrimidines:  Pyrimethamine, Trimethoprim
    • Others: Ethambutol, Cycloserine, Thiacetazone, Rifampin, Viomycin, Spectinomycin, Clofazimine 

    B. Classification on the basis of the mechanism of action 
    • Cause misreading of mRNA code and affect permeability: Streptomycin, Gentamicin, Aminoglycosides, etc 
    • Inhibit DNA gyrase: Fluoroquinolones, Ciprofloxacin, etc 
    • Interfere with intermediary metabolism: Trimethoprim, Sulfonamides, Ethambutol, Sulfones, PAS
    • Inhibit cell wall synthesis: Bacitracin, Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Vancomycin, Cycloserine
    • Cause leakage from cell membranes: Colistin, Polypeptides-Polymyxins, Bacitracin 
    • Interfere with DNA function: Metronidazole, Rifampin
    • Inhibit protein synthesis: Linezolid, Tetracyclines, Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin 

    C. Classification according to the spectrum of activity 
    • Narrow spectrum: Penicillin G, Erythromycin, Streptomycin
    • Intermediate spectrum: Newer macrolides, Cephalosporins (2nd/3rd Gen), Aminopenicillins, Fluoroquinolones
    • Broad spectrum: Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclines

    D. Classification according to the type of action 
    • Primarily bacteriostatic: Linezolid, Sulfonamides, Chloramphenicol, Ethambutol, Clindamycin, Tetracyclines, Erythromycin 
    • Primarily bactericidal: Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporins, Ciprofloxacin, Penicillins, Metronidazole, Rifampin, Vancomycin, Pyrazinamide, Nalidixic acid, Cotrimoxazole, Polypeptides, Isoniazid

    II. Sulfonamides 

    • Short-acting (4-8 hr): Sulfadiazine 
    • Intermediate-acting (8-12 hr): Sulfamethoxazole 
    • Long-acting (7 days): Sulfadoxine, Sulfamethopyrazine 
    • Special purpose sulfonamides: Silver sulfadiazine, Mafenide, Sulfacetamide sod., Sulfasalazine, Cotrimoxazole (Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 1:5)

    III. Quinolones 

    • Nonfluorinated Quinolone: Nalidixic acid 
    • First-generation Fluoroquinolones: Ciprofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin 
    • Second generation Fluoroquinolones: Sparfloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Levofloxacin 
    • Third generation Fluoroquinolones: Prulifloxacin, Gemifloxacin

    IV. Beta-Lactam Antibiotics 

    PENICILLINS 
    A. Natural Penicillin: Benzyl Penicillin (Penicillin G) 
    B. Semisynthetic Penicillins

    1. Acid-resistant alternative to penicillin G: Phenoxymethylpenicillin (Penicillin V) 
    2. Penicillinase resistant penicillins: Cloxacillin, Methicillin
    3. Extended-spectrum penicillins 
    • Aminopencillins: Bacampicillin, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin 
    • Carboxypenicillins: Ticarcillin, Carbenicillin
    • Ureidopenicillins: Mezlocillin, Piperacillin  

    C. B-lactamase inhibitors 
    Tazobactam, Sulbactam, Clavulanic acid

    CEPHALOSPORINS 
    First-generation 
    • Parenteral: Cefazolin, Cephalothin
    • Oral: Cefadroxil, Cephradine, Cephalexin 

    Second generation 
    • Parenteral: Cefoxitin, Cefuroxime  
    • Oral: Cefprozil, Cefuroxime axetil, Cefaclor

    Third generation 
    • Parenteral: Cefoperazone, Ceftizoxime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime,  Ceftriaxone
    • Oral: Ceftamet pivoxil, Cefixime, Cefdinir, Cefpodoxime proxetil, Ceftibuten

    Fourth generation 
    • Cefpirome, Cefepime 

    V. Aminoglycoside Antibiotics 

    A. Systemic aminoglycosides 
    • Amikacin, Gentamicin, Netilmicin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, Tobramycin, Sisomicin 

    B. Topical aminoglycosides 
    • Framycetin, Neomycin

    VI. Tetracyclines 

    • Demeclocycline 
    • Minocycline
    • Oxytetracycline 
    • Doxycycline 
    • Tetracycline 

    VII. Chloramphenicol 

    • Chloramphenicol 
    • Chloramphenicol succinate
    • Chloramphenicol palmitate 

    VIII. Macrolide Antibiotics 

    1. Erythromycin 
    • Erythromycin estolate (lauryl sulfate) 
    • Erythromycin ethylsuccinate 
    • Erythromycin (base) 
    • Erythromycin stearate 

    2. Spiramycin
    3. Clarithromycin 
    4. Roxithromycin
    5. Azithromycin

    IX. Lincosamide Antibiotics 

    • Clindamycin
    • Lincomycin

    X. Aminocyclitol Antibiotic 

    • Spectinomycin

    XI. Glycopeptide Antibiotics 

    • Teicoplanin 
    • Vancomycin

    XII. Oxazolidinone 

    • Linezolid 

    XIII. Polypeptide Antibiotics 

    • Bacitracin
    • Tyrothricin
    • Polymyxin B 
    • Colistin sulfate 

    XIV. Urinary Antiseptics 

    • Nalidixic acid 
    • Nitrofurantoin
    • Methenamine (Hexamine) mandelate 

    XV. Antitubercular Drugs 

    First-line drugs 
    • Ethambutol (E) 
    • Isoniazid (H) 
    • Pyrazinamide (Z) 
    • Rifampin (R)
    • Streptomycin (S)

    Second-line drugs 
    • Cycloserine (Cys) 
    • Paraaminosalicylic (PAS) 
    • Amikacin (Am) 
    • Thiacetazone (Tzn) 
    • Capreomycin (Cpr) 
    • Ethionamide (Etm)
    • Kanamycin (Kmc)

    Newer Drugs 
    • Clarithromycin, Rifabutin, Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin

    XVI. Antileprotic Drugs 

    • Antitubercular drugs: Rifampin, Ethionamide F MF Healthcare ank 
    • Sulfone: Dapsone (DDS) 
    • Phenazine derivative: Clofazimine
    • Other antibiotics: Ofloxacin, Minocycline, Clarithromycin

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