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Cranial nerves: Names, Functions, and Locations

Source: www.thoughtco.com

The cranial nerves are numbered based on their placement according to the axial-temporal axis (from the front to the back of the brain).

The cranial nerves have specific pathways inside and outside the skull (intracranial and extracranial)

There are also several holes in the skull called the Foramina, one of them: Foramen, cranial nerves pass through these holes out of the skull.

All cranial nerves are double, which means that there is a couple (right and left) for each side of the body.

  • The cranial nerves 3, 4, 6, 11 and 12 are motor nerves.
  • The cranial nerves 1, 2 and 8 are sensory nerves.
  • while cranial nerves 5, 7, 9 and 10 are mixed
  1. Olfactory nerve: sensory nerve transfer the sense of smell.
  2. Optic nerve: A sensory nerve that conveys the sense of sight.
  3. Oculomotor nerve: A motor nerve that innervate all extraocular muscles except superior oblique muscle and lateral rectus muscle.
  4. Trochlear nerve: a motor nerve innervates only one muscle is superior oblique muscle.
  5. Trigeminal nerve: Mixed nerve innervate sensory the face, Orbital cavity, Nasal cavity and mouth. In addition to excretory and motor branch.
  6. Abducent nerve: the motor nerve innervate One of the extraocular muscles is the lateral rectus muscle.
  7. Facial Nerve: innervate motor facial muscles, contains excretory branch of Parasympathetic nervous system of the lacrimal gland, nose, submandibular, sublingual, and lingual glands.
  8. Vestibulocochlear nerve: Moves sensations of static balance from saccule and Utricle, and the motor balance of Semicircular canal.
  9. Glossopharyngeal nerve: innervate soft palate muscles, pharyngeal mucus, and Sulcus terminalis tongue (conveying general sense and sense of taste for various tastes).
  10. Vagus nerve: Moves taste from the base of the tongue behind Sulcus terminalis tongue until Epiglottis and innervate the muscles of the palate, pharynx and larynx.
  11. The accessory nerve: innervate Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.
  12. Hypoglossal nerve: innervate the muscles of the tongue.

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