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Cardiology, Basics and rules of cardiac examination for medical students


Today we will start heart disease in the cardiology department, we will talk about the origins of the approach patients then we will address the method of examination, then we will talk more detailed about heart disease. There will be several positions spread over different periods, follow us to get all the updates

human-heart
Source: www.techexplorist.com

The doctor's approach to the patient must be according to the following stages:
  1. Clinical story
  2. Clinical examination
  3. Initial diagnosis mode
  4. Then the appropriate surveys
  5. Finally put the final diagnosis

The stages of questioning the heart patient:

healthcare_doctor_questions
Source: www.heart.org

Personal identification:
  • The patient's name and gender
  • Habits (smoking, alcohol)
  • Occupation
The main symptom of heart disease:
  1. Chest pain and Dyspnea: An irritating perception of breathing, is a pathological symptom if it occurs in rest or after a slight effort.
  2. Coughing and Puffiness: Coughing may be the first symptom of heart failure, especially night cough.
  3. Palpitations: An abnormal feeling of heartbeat, the most important causes are extrasystoles and severe bradycardia, It may be normal in some people due to hypersensitivity (palpitations is a relative symptom)
  4. Fatigue: It is caused by a lack of blood volume that reaches the skeletal muscles, which may reflect cardiac insufficiency or Cardiac ischemia, as well as lack of loaded with oxygen and nutrients Cardiac output.
  5. Balance Disorder: A lack of blood reaching the brain due to the rise or fall of arterial pressure.
  6. Syncope: Because of the lack of blood that reaches the brain, and often cardiogenic Syncope does not last more than five minutes, and if it exceeds this limit without the revival of the heart may cause complete loss of consciousness, and brain damage is not declining.

Anamnesis:
  • Details of Complaints (beginning, repetition, persistence, induced and mitigating factors, accompanying symptoms).
  • review the rest of the systems, emphasize the overall view of the patient, not just the cardiac side, and review the rest of the systems.
  • previous illness: (Medical, Surgical, Pharmaceutical, Family)

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